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   General principles of transducers (sensors) 
   In the strict sense of the word transducer is a device that converts a change in one quantity changes in the other. In terms of electronic transmitter is usually defined as a device (transducer ) that converts non-electrical physical quantity (called a measured physical quantity) in electrical cignal, or vice versa. There are, of course, exceptions to this rule. 
    It follows that the transducers are used in electronic systems, ie in technical devices to electrical signals, the result...

   The principles of the transformation of the measured physical parameters 
   In each converter, which converts the element is based on certain physical principle, which is associated with the electrical characteristics of the device so that a change in the quantity being measured involves a change in these characteristics. Changes in the electrical characteristics creates an electrical signal that depends on the quantity being measured. 
    Although the market sold thousands of transmitters, operating principles, on which they are based, there are relatively few. We can therefore consider these principles in detail. All converters are used in the basic principles can be grouped into categories, which are described below....

   General framework of the transducers:

Temperature sensors - thermistors
 Physical bases of work of thermo-resistor are described. Semiconductor thermo-resistor, methods of calibrating.
Magnetic field sensors - Hall-effect sensors
The sensor of Hall is name a device by means of which measure the size of magnetic-field using the effect of Hall. The sensor of Hall consists of semiconductor rectangular plate which four electric conclusions are added to. Schematically the pickoff of sensor of Hall ...
Strain gauges
Work of strain gauge  (tensoresistors transducers) is based on property of materials to change the electric resistance at mechanical deformations,  arising up under the action of the attached force. The size of tensoeffect explorers is determined mainly by the change of geometrical sizes of resistor (wire, tape), and semiconductors - specific resistance because of change ...

   Capacitie transducers, sensing elements, sensors
   The capacitance of a flat capacitor without taking into account the edge effect is determined by the equation С = ε0εS/d, where ε0 = 8,851012 Ас/(Вм) - the dielectric constant; ε - the relative permittivity of the medium between the capacitor ...

   Photovoltaic cells
    PV are such primary transducers (sensors) that are responsive to electromagnetic radiation incident on the surface of the transforming element. Radiation can...

   Load cells
    Sensors defoormatsii. Since the resistance of the conductor is given by R = ρL / S,
where ρ - the resistivity of the material; L - length S - cross-sectional area, the resistance can be changed at any fluctuation of the measured value, which affects one or more members of the expression argument.
    The reduced dependence of the strain gauge is used - converters, which...

    In a number of instruments used photodiodes with amplifiers to increase the sensitivity. Of course, in the conventional transistor (three-layer semiconductor p - n -n- or p -p- p-type) contains a p -n- transition with a negative bias, and the device can increase the current, ie, it has...

   Semiconductor strain transducers, temperature and magnetic field for use in radiation exposure, a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields
   The description of the experimental semiconductor transducers (sensors) temperature, deformation of the magnetic field.
   Semiconductor materials are highly sensitive to various external influences and the development based on these transducers (sensors) physical quantities...

   Thermoelectric converters (thermocouples)
   Thermoelectricity, the practical use of thermoelectric temperature measurement (thermocouple), thermopower in various materials, alloys for manufacturing of thermocouples.
    The principle of the thermocouple is based on the thermoelectric effect, which is that in a closed circuit consisting of two dissimilar conductors occurs thermoelectric power (electric voltage) if the places of the junctions of conductors have different temperatures. If we take a closed...
   To eliminate the error is widely used automatic temperature adjustment for the introduction of the free ends of the thermocouple. For this purpose ...
   Thermal electric
   Thermal electric transductive elements transform the change of measurable value (temperature) into change of current that occurs as a result from difference of temperature at junction of two heterogeneous materials, where Seebeck effect appears (Pic. 17).
   Thermal electric transducer is more known as a thermocouple, where a probe consists of two junctions ...

   Calibrating  of thermocouples (calibration charts)
   Calibration charts are shown for different thermocouples, which can be used for temperature measurement with thermocouples of known alloys.
   For a condition, when a free end(shut) of thermocouple is at the zero of degrees celsius. Chromel-alumel et al.

   Making of thermocouple
   Detailed description of simple methods for making thermocouples at home.
   For measuring and researches in the laboratory terms of thermocouple it is possible to make independently. For this purpose the produced use by industry of wire from materials suitable for making of thermocouple. What less than wires a diameter thermocouples, the less than error in determination of temperature and determination of parameters of thermal processes, because influence of thermocouple diminishes on a heat exchange. Material of thermocouple ...

   Cryogenic (low temperature) temperature sensors
   Measurement of temperatures in the cryogenic range. To measure the temperature in the cryogenic region using semiconductor and metal sensors - resistance thermometers (thermistors), and thermocouple ...

   Effect of Hall
   If through a homogeneous metallic or semiconductor plate to skip a current from left to right, along the axis of х, as it is shown ...
   Sensors are a hall - effect
   To comparatively recent time the effect of Hall was used only for the study of electric properties of matters. With opening of elementary semiconductors ... A sensor is a hall - effect consists of thin mica substrate ...

   Semiconductor strain gauges
   High tensosensitivity semiconductor well above tensosensitivity metals is of great interest for use in the semiconductor strain gauges. Along with the advantages of semiconductor strain gauges are also some disadvantages that prevent the use of such sensors ...

   Mechanical methods of measuring fill level
   Measurement of the fill level of the liquid by float. Sensors. Using the float as a sensing element to measure the height of the liquid level. The physical principle ...

   A number of precision oscillators Emf. Hall
   Magnetic measurements are one of the main a warm and cryogenic - of electrophysical apparatus, using magnetic fields. Small generators emf. Hall (GC) are undeniable advantage of other magnetic devices that determines their wide application for magnetic measurements in Electrophysics.
   In the measurement of strong fields one of the main ...
   Automotive Hall sensor. The Hall sensor in the ignition system
   Currently, Hall sensors are widely used in the automotive industry. They are used to control displacements and rotations of various parts of the vehicle, vibrations of the engine, the ignition ...

   Hygrometer with a conductive film
   Absorbed by certain materials, water can affect the electrical properties of these materials. This phenomenon is at the heart of the hygrometer with a conductive film. Depending on the humidity of the air (gas) in hygrometers with a conductive film changes the electrical resistance of the film - the sensor hygrometer.
   This type of hygrometer measures the relative humidity of the air, which...

   Transducers of acceleration. Accelerometers.
   The accelerometer is a transducer that measures the acceleration of the object, which he acquired at the displacement relative to its initial position. Accelerometers are used to measure acceleration in the horizontal displacements caused by the acceleration of gravity. Currently mass produced accelerometers based on micro electromechanical systems (MEMS)....

   Solar battery
   The first solar cell was called the solar battery. Technology for producing silicon battery, physical and technical basics.
   Solar panel so named first silicon solar cell. This solar cell ...
   Manufacturing technology of SPC is complex. It boils down to the following ...

   Chromel - Copel thermocouple
   Chromel - Copel thermocouple (TCC, Type L) have the highest differential sensitivity of all commercially available thermocouples. Chromel-Copel thermocouples are used for more accurate temperature measurements, as well ...

   Capacitive pressure transducers, thickness
   A capacitance transducer is a flat (or other form) capacitor whose capacitance depends on the area of the electrodes, their mutual arrangement, the distance between ...

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The site provides information about the different transducers. Sensors and transducers, and the physical principles of operation, features, new developments.


Temperature, thermoelectricity

Magnetic fields

Mechanical stress, strain

Force, pressure, displacement, flow

Humidity, gases

Photo effects, light

Ionizing radiation

Electricity, capacity, piezoelectricity

Physical properties of materials

Literature on transducers

News, exhibitions, conferences

About the project. Contacts

Датчики, сенсоры, преобразователи
2022 International Conference on Wireless Power Transfer
IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Energy Technologies
09-10 December 2021
Hilton Head Workshop 2020: A Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Workshop
Power electronics 2019
Applications for participation in the competition are open ...
The Conference will be held in Ternopil, September 24-27, 2019.
7th International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology
Position Paper Submission Deadline: November 15, 2018
The 6th Annual Conference of AnalytiX 2018 (AnalytiX-2018)
Time: March 26-28, 2018
Venue: Miami, USA
Last annual Congress has been arranged successfully during March 22-24 in Fukuoka, Japan. Over 350 world-renowned experts ...
ISCAS 2017 - 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)
Date  2017-05-28 - 2017-05-31
On 25 - 27 October 2016 the 13th International exhibition of power electronics components and systems Power Electronics will be held in Crocus Expo, Moscow, Russia
Smart Cities Innovation Summit - June 13-15, 2016 - Austin, TX
Smart Cities Innovation Summit in Austin, co-located with US Ignite's Application Summit, represents the most ...
Call for Abstracts - Nanotech 2016
May 22-25, 2016 - Washington, D.C.
Early Abstracts due Jan 15th - Submit Today!
   The world's largest nanotechnology event, Nanotech 2016, delivers application-focused research from the top international academic, government and  ...
The 4th International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology PHOTOPTICS 2016
   This 4th edition of PHOTOPTICS will feature 3 different tracks on Optics, Photonics and Lasers. Researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in any of these fields are welcome to join us in Rome and present their work on new methods or technologies, advanced prototypes, systems, tools and techniques...
The project plans to hold a new SWorld annual international scientific and practical conference "Intellectual potential of the XXI century" 2015 ". Time: 10 to 22 November 2015
Automotive Sensors and Electronics Expo 2015
Annual Conference and Exhibition
May 20-21, 2015
How to cheat imager
- How to hide from the thermal imager. video

Quartz disk memory
In Japan optical disks of memory which can keep information of 300 million years are created. On capacity such disks...
International Conference Photonics 2015
Berlin, Germany. The deadline for paper submission is for September 30, 2014.
International Scientific Conference
" CURRENT ISSUES modern technology "
World Conference WCSESWET 2014
   Date For Abstract Submission: 27th February,2014.
   Final Paper Submissions: 20th March, 2014
2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics
September 08-10, 2014 at Philadelphia, USA
II International Scientific Conference "Engineering: Theory and Practice"
   01.2014. Web: http://www.moluch.ru/conf/
The development of "Skolkovo" will allocate 125.2 billion rubles. from the federal budget. http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/

International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology
PHOTOPTICS website: http://www.photoptics.org/
January 7 - 9, 2014
Lisbon, Portugal


Sensors fill level. Measurement of filling
   Depending on the industry and environment in which it is assumed the use of level sensors filling, they have to meet  ...
News, Conferences, exhibition
Датчики, преобразователи. Sensors, transducers

Information about various converters and sensors of physical quantities, parameters of various physical processes is presented.
Electrophysical properties and effects in various electrical materials.
Theory, experimental results, practical application

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