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характеристики датчиков Холла
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General principles of transducers (sensors) 
    In the strict sense of the word transducer is a device that converts a change in one quantity changes in the other. In terms of electronic transmitter ... >>>
The principles of the transformation of the measured physical parameters 
    In each converter, which converts the element is based on certain physical principle, which is associated with the electrical characteristics of the device so that a change in the quantity being measured   >>>
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Temperature sensors, thermocouple             Sensors of mechanical stress
Force, pressure, flow                                    Phototransducers
Ionization transducers                                    Hall sensors
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3. Measuring transducers of magnetic-field

   Technical descriptions of measuring transducers of magnetic-field on the basis of effect of Hall (sensors of Hall) depend both on the used material and from geometrical sizes and form of pickoff /10/. Most often for the pickoffs of sensors of Hall use such materials as InSb and GaAs, basic advantages of which consist in high mobility of transmitters of charges.
   By us for creation of measuring transducers tapes of GaAs were used on a semiinsulating gaas. The purpose of development was creation of sensors with the low levels of noises, high linearness of dependence of useful signal from magnetic-field, by weak dependence of parameters on a temperature and radiation irradiation, and similarly  miniature of working area.
   On a fig. 10 the schematic image of sensor of Hall is shown. A construction and technology of assembling of corps foresee indemnification of mechanical tensions, arising up at the change of temperature and able to influence on descriptions of pickoff. The thickness of tapes of СаАs was varied within the limits of 0.1-5 mkm, a concentration of transmitters of current of (1·10^17 -  5·10^18) см^- 3  is Size of working area of 100 х 30 mkm. Depending on the thickness of tapes and concentration of transmitters of current entrance and output electric resistances changed within the limits of 15 - 1500 Ohm, currents of feed from 3 to 150 mA, an initial output signal of Uo  was within the limits of 0.01 - 5 mV, temperature dependence of Uo less than 0,1%/K, R ~ 0,08 %/K, sensitiveness to the magnetic field within the limits of 80 - 500 mV/Т, linearness in the field to 2 Тл not worse 0,1%. Sensors are capable of working in the range of temperatures 4.2 - 400 К. For the improvement of noise descriptions and achievement of high absolute sensitiveness of measuring transformers the specially worked out corps, technology of assembling and methods of measuring, was used. At making of transformers the industrial crystals of elements of Hall are used also on the basis of InSb with the working area of 100x100 mkm. Descriptions over of basic types of transformers of magnetic-field are brought in a table 4. Due to a high absolute sensitiveness these transformers of magnetic-field can be used in the systems for measuring of the weak fields, for example the fields of Earth, without application of difficult circuit technology decisions and expensive measuring apparatus /11,12/.

   From literature /1,13,14/ it is known that from a radiation radiation on electrophysics properties of semiconductors most influence renders a neutron irradiation. Thus the mechanism of influence consists mainly in formation of structural defects and radio-active transformation of atoms. With the increase of alloying level influence of irradiation relaxes. The researches conducted by us showed that neutron irradiation a to 10^15 cm^ - 2 practically does not influence on basic technical descriptions of the worked out transformers at 300К. The study of influence of irradiation of higher closenesses of streams of neutrons is planned in future.

Conclusions
   Worked out constructions of strain gauge, technologies of making, methods of measuring allow to conduct measuring of mechanical deformations in the range of temperatures of 4.2-400К with an error no more than 6%. Magnetic field to   7 Т at the temperature of 4.2К results in an error no more than 3%.
   The measuring transformers of magnetic-field on the effect of Hall are capable of working in the wide range of temperatures, possess weak temperature dependence of sensitiveness and initial output signal (less than 0.1%). Non-linearity of output signal does not exceed 1% in the field to 2Т, a sensitiveness arrives at 500 mV/Т at the current of feed of 7 mA.
   The measuring transformers of temperature can be used in a wide range, in the magnetic fields, possess a high sensitiveness and stability, that allows to use them both for taking temperature and for high-fidelity thermo stabilizing of different devices.
   All worked out measuring transformers can work in the conditions of neutron irradiation to 10^15 см^-2 without the origin of noticeable errors.
   High sensitiveness and weak dependence on extraneous influences, stability of testimonies of measuring transformers it is allowed to use them for the high-fidelity measuring of physical sizes, and similarly for creation of sensors of moving, acceleration, position in space of and other.

  Literature    
1. Отчет ИТЕР: "Диагностическое оснащение порт-лимитера ИТЕР". С. -Петербург, 2001,54с.
2. Клокова Н.П. Тензорезисторы.-М.Машиностроение, 1990.-224с.
3. Дайчик М.Л., Пригоровский Н.И., Хуршудов Г.Х. Методы и средства натурной тензометрии. Справочник. М. Машиностроение, 1989.-240с.
4. Отчет по НИОКР: "Разработка и исследование диагностических датчиков температуры деформации и магнитного поля". Peг. № 0195V 028026 Киев- 1995,45с.
5. Патент РФ 2043671. Полупроводниковый тензорезистор. Авт. Горбачук Н.Т. / Б.И. 1995, №25.
6. Фридель Ж. Дислокации.-М.:Мир, 1967,-643с.
7. Орлова М.П., Погорелова О.Ф., Улыбин С.А. Низкотемпературная термометрия.-М., Энергоатомиздат, 1987.-280с.
8. R.F. Harris - Lowe and R.R.Turkington. Comparison of calibrated temperature sensors: 4 -300 k. - Gryogenics, № 10, 1984, p. 531
9. Патент Р.Ф. 2025736. Способ измерения температуры. Авт. Горбачук Н.Т. / Б.И. 1994, №24.
10. Хомерики О.К. Полупроводниковые преобразователи магнитного поля. М.-Энергоатомиздат, 1986,136с.
11. Амосков В.М., Васильев В.Н., Горбачук Н.Т. и др. Прецизионный трехкомпонентный магнитометр на генераторах э.д.с. Холла для измерения слабых магнитных полей. Гироскопия и навигация, № 4(31), с.56. 2000г.
12. Желамский М.В., Константинов А.Б., Сычевский С.Е., и др. Ряд прецизионных генераторов э.д.с. Холла. Вопросы атомной науки и техники. Серия: Электрофизическая аппаратура. в. I(27), 2002г, с.9-14.
13. Кулаков В.М., Ладыгин Е.А., Шеховцов В.И. и др. действие проникающей радиации на изделия электронной техники.- М.:Сов. радио,  1980.-224с.
14. Викулин И.М., Стафеев В.И.. Физика полупроводниковых приборов.-М.:
Радио и связь, 1990.-264с.
15. Бараночников М.Л. Микромагнитоэлектроника. Том 1. ДМК.-М.:2001.

   It is published:
1. Беляков В.А., Горбачук Н.Т., Диденко П.И., Илясов О.В., Ламзин Е.А., Ларионов М.С., Максимов Б.П. , Сычевский С.Е., Филатов О.Г., Фирсов А.А., Шатиль Н.А.,  (Журнал "Вопросы атомной науки и техники", Серия: Электрофизическая аппаратура, в.3(29), 2005, с.46-54)
2. Nikolay Gorbachuk, Mikhail Larionov, Aleksey Firsov, Nikolay Shatil. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range. Sensors & Transducers Journal and Magazine,
Vol. 162, Issue 1, January 2014, pp.1-4

  Abridged version of the article: Semiconductor Sensors

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Датчики, преобразователи. Sensors, transducers
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