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General principles of transducers (sensors) 
    In the strict sense of the word transducer is a device that converts a change in one quantity changes in the other. In terms of electronic transmitter ... >>>
The principles of the transformation of the measured physical parameters 
    In each converter, which converts the element is based on certain physical principle, which is associated with the electrical characteristics of the device so that a change in the quantity being measured   >>>
See also:
Temperature sensors, thermocouple             Sensors of mechanical stress
Force, pressure, flow                                    Phototransducers
Ionization transducers                                    Hall sensors
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Ionization measuring transducers

For Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of one of the ionizing transducers with a radioactive isotope. The device is designed for continuous measurement of the thickness of a moving tape or rolled steel.
Датчики, преобразователи. Sensors, transducers
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Датчики, преобразователи, sensors, gauge
Схема ионизационного преобразователя
Scheme of ionization transducer
Fig. 1. Scheme of ionization transducer for measuring the thickness of the tape.

The principle of operation of the device is as follows. Radioactive radiation of isotope 1 is partially absorbed by product 2. The amount of energy obtained by the indicator 5 depends on the material and thickness of the product. Indicator 3 via amplifier 4 is connected to the measuring mechanism 5 barred in the values of the measured value.
Fig. 2. Scheme of the ionization level gauge.
Fig. 3. Scheme of the device for measuring the gas pressure.


For Fig. 2 the scheme of the device of the level transmitter working on the same principle is shown.
On the surface of liquid 1 floats float 2 with a radioactive isotope. Indicator 3, which receives radiation, is located above the float. When the liquid level changes, the distance from the radiation source to the indicator and, consequently, the amount of energy received by the indicator changes.

For Fig. 3 the block diagram of the gas pressure meter is given. Under the influence of radioactive radiation of isotope 1, ionization of the gas occurs in vessel 2. Depending on the gas pressure, the ionization intensity and the ionization current passing through the circuit under the applied voltage U. the Measuring mechanism 5 is switched on via amplifier 4 to resistance 3, the voltage drop on which is created by the ionization current.
A similar device have ionization gas analyzers.