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General principles of transducers (sensors) 
    In the strict sense of the word transducer is a device that converts a change in one quantity changes in the other. In terms of electronic transmitter ... >>>
The principles of the transformation of the measured physical parameters 
    In each converter, which converts the element is based on certain physical principle, which is associated with the electrical characteristics of the device so that a change in the quantity being measured   >>>


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Temperature transducers. Termistors
    Fig. 14. Descriptions of dependence of resistance   of some metals from a temperature:
1 is a nickel;     2 is a tungsten;     3 is a copper; 4 is platinum

      Resistance sometimes also changes at fluctuation in a temperature. For a metal this change has linear dependence

                                                                                                                                                            R = Ro(1+ aT),
where Rо is resistance at a temperature 0 °С; Т is a temperature, °С; an is a temperature coefficient of resistance.
Model dependences of resistance of some metals on a temperature are shown on a fig. 14. They testify to the high degree of linearness of connection between resistance and temperature. For creation of temperature measuring transducers of such type a wire is usually used from platinum.

Thermistors
      Other basic group of temperature-sensitive transducers, used in thermometric devices, is known under the name termistors. They have very nonlinear description, however can be effectively used in the systems for taking temperature. Resistance of termistor is determined by next expression:
                                                                                                            Rt  = Aexp(B/T)
where Rt is resistance; And - permanent, value of which for different materials differently; In is a characteristic temperature of device; Т is a temperature, К.

Fig. 15. Dependence of resistance of typical termistor on a temperature:


      Typical description of termistor is presented on a fig.15. Comparison of descriptions of capacitance-resistance transducers (fig.14) with descriptions of termistor allows to draw conclusion that last:
1) are more steep, i.e. the temperature coefficient of resistance substantially more than in metals for them, at least in basic part of curve;
2) fall with the increase of temperature, i.e. the temperature coefficient of resistance for them is negative.




      Termistor transducers with the negative temperature   coefficient   of resistance   are known anymore   as   NTC - termistors. It is necessary to notice that exist and termistors with a positive coefficient resistances which are designated as РТС- termistor. The last more frequent apply temperatures not for measuring, and, will say, for warning of overheat.
      Other and by more comfortable formula for description of description of termistor in the case when his resistance of R1  is known at some temperature of T1, there is expression
                                                                                            R = R1expB( 1/T - 1/T1),

which turns out by a substitution in the before brought formula over of next obvious correlation :
                                                                                                  R1 = Aexp(B/T1)

      Termistors is substantially less than on sizes, than metallic capacitance-resistance transducers, and they quicker react on the change of temperature. On the other hand, the small sizes of termistors result in that for their self heating  a small current is required. Consequently, it is possible to consider that a current influences on exactness of measuring.
Датчики, преобразователи. Sensors, transducers
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