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Semiconductor transducers
      Semiconductor devices belong to categories  of electronic components which are named semiconductors. Clean or unalloyed semiconductor usually not used in these devices, but originally alloyed by admixtures in a semiconductor crystalline grate they become admixture semiconductors.
      Admixture semiconductors are alloyed so that to provide surplus of electrons (semiconductors of n - type) or their defect (semiconductors of p - type). The presence of admixtures in a semiconductor crystalline grate is determined by the degree of to conductivity grate.
      The single layers of п- or р- semiconductors do not find application, and semiconductor material becomes a semiconductor device only then, when two or more than layers of different types contact with each other. The simplest р- n -  transition forms a straightening  device or diode. Volt-ampere description of diode is set according to correlation, known as equalization of Shokli or equalization of ideal diode, namely:
I = Io [exp(qV/kT) - 1]

Where  Iо is a current of satiation (or current of loss); q is a charge of electron; V is the tension put to the diode; k - Boltzmann; Т is a temperature, К.
      Any change of measurand, which causes the change of the expression given above, maybe, certainly, is used for the change of current, flowing through a transition. For example, a diode is sometimes used as a transformer of temperature, as a current of loss of semiconductor changes in the function of temperature. The current of loss of silicon makes approximately 25 nА at a temperature 25 °With and increases to 6.5 мА at a temperature 150°С.

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General principles of transducers (sensors) 
    In the strict sense of the word transducer is a device that converts a change in one quantity changes in the other. In terms of electronic transmitter ... >>>
The principles of the transformation of the measured physical parameters 
    In each converter, which converts the element is based on certain physical principle, which is associated with the electrical characteristics of the device so that a change in the quantity being measured   >>>


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See also:
Temperature sensors, thermocouple             Sensors of mechanical stress
Force, pressure, flow                                    Phototransducers
Ionization transducers                                    Hall sensors
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Датчики, преобразователи. Sensors, transducers